Category Archives: General


HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the main markup language for web pages. HTML elements are the basic building-blocks of webpages.

HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets , within the web page content. HTML tags most commonly come in pairs like, although some tags, known as empty elements, are unpaired, for example . The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag (they are also called opening tags and closing tags). In between these tags web designers can add text, tags, comments and other types of text-based content.

The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose them into visible or audible web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page.

HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites. HTML allows images and objects to be embedded and can be used to create interactive forms. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. It can embed scripts in languages such as JavaScript which affect the behavior of HTML webpages.

Web browsers can also refer to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the appearance and layout of text and other material. The W3C, maintainer of both the HTML and the CSS standards, encourages the use of CSS over explicitly presentational HTML markup



JavaScript (JS) is a prototype-based scripting language that is dynamic, weakly typed and has first-class functions. It is a multi-paradigm language, supporting object-oriented imperative, and functional programming styles.

JavaScript was formalized in the ECMAScript language standard and is primarily used in the form of client-side JavaScript, implemented as part of a Web browser in order to provide enhanced user interfaces and dynamic websites. This enables programmatic access to computational objects within a host environment.

JavaScript uses syntax influenced by that of C. JavaScript copies many names and naming conventions from Java, but the two languages are otherwise unrelated and have very different semantics. The key design principles within JavaScript are taken from the Self and Scheme programming languages.

Netscape is the software company who developed JavaScript.


Julian day

Julian day is used in the Julian date (JD) system of time measurement for scientific use by the astronomy community, presenting the interval of time in days and fractions of a day since January 1, 4713 BC Greenwich noon. Julian date is recommended for astronomical use by the International Astronomical Union.
The Julian Day Number (JDN) is the Julian day with the fractional part ignored. It is sometimes used in calendrical calculation, in which case, JDN 0 is used for the date equivalent to Monday January 1, 4713 BC in the Julian calendar.
The term Julian date is widely used to refer to the day-of-year (ordinal date) although incorrectly.


XML-RPC is a remote procedure call (RPC) protocol which uses XML to encode its calls and HTTP as a transport mechanism. also refers generically to the use of XML for remote procedure call, independently of the specific protocol.

XML-RPC permits programs to make function or procedure calls across a network.

XMLRPC uses the HTTP protocol to pass information from a client computer to a server computer.

XML-RPC uses a small XML vocabulary to describe the nature of requests and responses.

XML-RPC client specify a procedure name and parameters in the XML request, and the server returns either a fault or a response in the XML response.

XML-RPC parameters are a simple list of types and content – structs and arrays are the most complex types available.



Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is an inter-process communication that allows a computer program to cause a subroutine or procedure to execute in another address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network) without the programmer explicitly coding the details for this remote interaction. That is, the programmer writes essentially the same code whether the subroutine is local to the executing program, or remote. When the software in question uses object-oriented principles, RPC is called remote invocation or remote method invocation.



The term open source describes practices in production and development that promote access to the end product’s source materials.Before the term open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of phrases to describe the concept; open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet.

Open-source software (OSS) is computer software that is available in source code form: the source code and certain other rights normally reserved for copyright holders are provided under a software license that permits users to study, change, improve and at times also to distribute the software.



The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform and language-independent convention for representing and interacting with objects in HTML, XHTML and XML documents.[1] Aspects of the DOM (such as its “Elements”) may be addressed and manipulated within the syntax of the programming language in use. The public interface of a DOM is specified in its application programming interface (API).

Following are the valid DOM save methods

A. save()
B. saveXML()
C. saveHTML()
D. saveHTMLFile()


Benefits and drawbacks – Rewrite engine

  • The links are “cleaner” and more descriptive, improving their “friendliness” to both users and search engines.
  • They prevent undesired “inline linking”, which can waste bandwidth.
  • They hide the inner workings of a web site’s address to visitors, which can prevent them from discovering query strings that could compromise the site.
  • The site can continue to use the same URLs even if the underlying technology used to serve them is changed (for example, switching to a new blogging engine).
  • There can, however be drawbacks as well; if a user wants to modify a URL to retrieve new data, the rewrite engine may hinder the construction of custom queries due to the lack of named variables.

Rewrite engine

A rewrite engine is software that modifies a web URL’s appearance (URL rewriting). Rewritten URLs (sometimes known as short, fancy URLs, or search engine friendly – SEF) are used to provide shorter and more relevant-looking links to web pages. The technique adds a degree of separation between the files used to generate a web page and the URL that is presented to the World.