All posts by Pramod T P

Safe mode

Safe mode is a diagnostic mode of a computer operating system (OS). It can also refer to a mode of operation by application software. Safe mode is intended to fix most, if not all problems within an operating system. It is also widely used for removing Rogue security software.

The PHP safe mode is an attempt to solve the shared-server security problem. It is architecturally incorrect to try to solve this problem at the PHP level, but since the alternatives at the web server and OS levels aren’t very realistic, many people, especially ISP’s, use safe mode for now.

  • Limit the execution of shell commands
  • Limit access to system environment variables
  • Limit the paths from which PHP can include files using include or require


The PHP Data Objects (PDO) extension defines a lightweight, consistent interface for accessing databases in PHP.


  • Supports 12 different databases
  • Object Mapping
  • Supports prepared statements
  • Supports multiple statements
  • Object oriented interface
  • Named parameters
  • PDO has built-in support for Large Objects (LOBs).
  • When something goes wrong, PDO can throw an instance of its own exception class.
  • PDO does not emulate missing database features.
  • Placeholders within PDO prepared statements need not be named.


PHP is a server side scripting language used in web development to cerate dynamic web pages and can be embedded into HTML codes .The web server with php processor module interprets the code and geneate the web pages as per the given code .

PHP is a loosely typed language. It means you do not have to tell PHP which data type the variable is.PHP automatically converts the variable to the correct data type, depending on its value.

PHP stands for PHP Hypertext Preprocessor (A recursive acronym) .Earlier it was known as personnel home pages .

PHP is an open source software and its free to download and use .

It supports many databases like MySql,Oracle etc…



The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform and language-independent convention for representing and interacting with objects in HTML, XHTML and XML documents.[1] Aspects of the DOM (such as its “Elements”) may be addressed and manipulated within the syntax of the programming language in use. The public interface of a DOM is specified in its application programming interface (API).

Following are the valid DOM save methods

A. save()
B. saveXML()
C. saveHTML()
D. saveHTMLFile()


Persistent Cookie

Also called a permanent cookie, or a stored cookie, a cookie that is stored on a user s hard drive until it expires (persistent cookies are set with expiration dates) or until the user deletes the cookie.

Persistent cookies help websites remember your information and settings when you visit them in the future. This result in faster and more convenient access since, for example, you don’t have to login again.

Besides authentication, other website features made possible by persistent cookies include: language selection, theme selection, menu preferences, internal site bookmarks or favorites, among many others. On your first visit, the website is presented in default mode. During your visit, you select your preferences and these preferences are remembered, through the use of the persistent cookie, the next time you visit the site.