Tag Archives: Apache

Install Apache From Source Centos Linux

Follow the below steps to install apache in CentOS 7

Install EPEL Repository

In order to install EPEL repository execute following command:

sudo yum install epel-release -y

Install required tools for compilation

sudo yum install autoconf expat-devel libtool libnghttp2-devel pcre-devel -y

Download and unpack source code

Here are the links to the packages:

Apache httpd – https://github.com/apache/httpd/releases
APR – https://github.com/apache/apr/releases
APR-util https://github.com/apache/apr-util/releases

wget https://github.com/apache/httpd/archive/2.4.33.tar.gz
wget https://github.com/apache/apr/archive/1.6.3.tar.gz
wget https://github.com/apache/apr-util/archive/1.6.1.tar.gz
tar -zxvf 2.4.33.tar.gz
tar -zxvf 1.6.3.tar.gz
tar -zxvf 1.6.1.tar.gz

APR and APR-Util

Apache requires APR library for compilation. You need to copy the source codes to correct directory:

cp -r apr-1.6.3 httpd-2.4.33/srclib/apr
cp -r apr-util-1.6.1 httpd-2.4.33/srclib/apr-util

It’s important to not to include version number in APR directories. If you just copy apr-1.6.3 without changing the name, it will give you a warning about missing apr directory.

Compile source code

cd httpd-2.4.33
./buildconf
./configure --enable-so
make

Install HTTPD

sudo make install

Add Apache executables to PATH

If you try to type httpd -v in your command line, it will result in command not found. That’s because httpd is not on your $PATH. I’d like to have all executables from Apache available from everywhere. In order to achieve that, create file

sudo vi /etc/profile.d/httpd.sh

and paste there following contents:

pathmunge /usr/local/apache2/bin

Save the file, log out and log in from your current session to reload your profile. After that you should be able to use httpd -v command:)

Add Systemd entry

Starting, restarting, and enabling Apache on server start via systemctl command is very important thing. You need to create another file:

sudo vi /etc/systemd/system/httpd.service

and paste there following contents:

[Unit]
Description=The Apache HTTP Server
After=network.target

[Service]
Type=forking
ExecStart=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl -k start
ExecReload=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl -k graceful
ExecStop=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl -k graceful-stop
PIDFile=/usr/local/apache2/logs/httpd.pid
PrivateTmp=true

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

Save the file and reload the systemctl daemon

sudo systemctl daemon-reload

Now you can try to start your Apache httpd server with following command:

sudo systemctl start httpd

Create dedicated user and group for Apache

sudo groupadd www
sudo useradd httpd -g www --no-create-home --shell /sbin/nologin

Edit the httpd.conf file and update the user ad group.

User httpd
Group www

Now restart the server service httpd restart

So that’s it. You have fully working Apache httpd in latest version installed on your system .

This process might take some time, but you will have full control over httpd.

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KeepAlive

HTTP is a session less protocol. A connection is made to transfer a single file and closed once the transfer is complete. This keeps things simple but it’s not very efficient.

To improve efficiency something called KeepAlive was introduced. With KeepAlive the web browser and the web server agree to reuse the same connection to transfer multiple files.

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Apache Directives

Apache directives are a set of rules which define how your server should run, number of clients that can access your server, etc. you can change them by editing the httpd.conf and related files to meet your requirements

Below given are the some of the important directives

  • Alias
  • AliasMatch
  • CheckSpelling
  • DocumentRoot
  • ErrorDocument
  • Options
  • ProxyPass
  • ProxyPassReverse
  • ProxyPassReverseCookieDomain
  • ProxyPassReverseCookiePath
  • Redirect
  • RedirectMatch
  • RewriteCond
  • RewriteRule
  • ScriptAlias
  • ScriptAliasMatch
  • UserDir
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Apache mod_rewrite

This module uses a rule-based rewriting engine (based on a regular-expression parser) to rewrite requested URLs on the fly. It supports an unlimited number of rules and an unlimited number of attached rule conditions for each rule, to provide a really flexible and powerful URL manipulation mechanism. The URL manipulations can depend on various tests, of server variables, environment variables, HTTP headers, or time stamps. Even external database lookups in various formats can be used to achieve highly granular URL matching.

This module operates on the full URLs (including the path-info part) both in per-server context (httpd.conf) and per-directory context (.htaccess) and can generate query-string parts on result. The rewritten result can lead to internal sub-processing, external request redirection or even to an internal proxy throughput.

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Apache CheckSpelling

This directive enables or disables the spelling module. When enabled, keep in mind that

  • the directory scan which is necessary for the spelling correction will have an impact on the server’s performance when many spelling corrections have to be performed at the same time.
  • the document trees should not contain sensitive files which could be matched inadvertently by a spelling “correction”.
  • the module is unable to correct misspelled user names (as in http://my.host/~apahce/), just file names or directory names.
  • spelling corrections apply strictly to existing files, so a request for the <Location /status> may get incorrectly treated as the negotiated file “/stats.html”.

mod_speling should not be enabled in DAV enabled directories, because it will try to “spell fix” newly created resource names against existing filenames, e.g., when trying to upload a new document doc43.html it might redirect to an existing document doc34.html, which is not what was intended.

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